Advertising 2017 – SOLVED QUESTION PAPER – DIBRUGARH UNIVERSITY – Semester 6 – B.Com

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B.Com 6th Semester-



1.Write True or False:

a) Advertising is an integral part of our economic and social life.


b) Institutional advertising is aimed to sell a specific product.


c) An advertising media is a means of delivering a definite

message to the concerned person.


d) Advertising copy has no sentimental value.


e) Emotional appeal may be positive or negative.


f) The first advertising agency was started by Charles Lamb.


2. Write short notes on any four of the following-:

a) Legal and ethical aspects off advertisement

1. False, not misleading : The basic legal standard for advertising is that ad’s must be truthful and not misleading several factors are considered when analysing whether an ad is truthful and not deceptive. These includes whether the claim made by the

advertisement is expressed or implied, who the reasonable consumer is for the product and whether the false or misleading content ( if any) is material enough such that it would influence consumer buying behaviour.

2. Evidence for claims: The other legal standard for advertisement is reliable evidence that supports any claim being made by the advertisements. According to the federal trade commission the exact level of evidence needed varies depending on the claim.

3. Ethical consideration: Ethical consideration fall into a grey area for advertisements it is possible for an advertisement to be legally permissible, but for to be ethical. Ethical consideration relate to the manner in which the content is been delivered and the message of the advertisements.

4. Advertising regulation: The federal trade commission regulates advertising in the United State. False misleading ads fall into the sphere of federal trade commission jurisdiction. Advertisers face criminal and civil penalties for illegal ads. The same penalties may not apply for unethical ads.

b) Advertising communication system

Advertising communication can be defined as a perception process of the source, a message, a communication channel and a receiver. A receiver might sometimes become the source of information by communicating the message to family and friends. This kind of communication is called word of mouth communication, which involves social interactions between two or more people.

Advertising communication always involves a perception process and four of the elements shown in the model- the source, a message, a communication channel and a receiver. The source of a

message in the advertising communication system is the point of which the message originates. There are many types of sources in the context of advertising such as the company offering the product, the particular brand or the spoke person used.

It includes:-

1. Any material published using any medium or activity

undertaken by or on behalf of the advertiser over which the advertiser has minimal control.

2. Something that attracts the attention of the public in a way to promote directly or indirectly a product or service.

It does not includes:-

1. Labels or packaging of the products

2. Corporate reports including public affairs message in the press release and other media statements and annual reports.

c) Copywriting of advertisement

Copywriting is the act or occupation of writing text for the purpose of advertising or other forms of marketing. The product copy is written content that aims to increase brand awareness and ultimately persuade a person or group to take a particular action.

Copywriting help create billboards, brochures, catalogues, jingle lyrics, magazines and newspaper advertisements, sales letter and other direct mail, scripts for television or radio commercial, taglines, white papers, social media posts, and other marketing communication. Many copywriters are employed in marketing departments, advertisement agencies, or are self-employed as freelancers, where the clients are usually small, medium or large companies.

Copywriting is one of the most important aspects of advertising. It is the process of writing advertising promotional materials. Copywriters are responsible for generating the words, slogans and audio scripts that accompany advertising visuals.

d) Advertisement message—

An advertising message is the visual and/ or auditory information prepared by an advertiser to inform and/ or to persuade an audience regarding a product, organisation or idea. It is sometimes called the creative work by advertising professionals in recognition of the talent and skills required to prepare the most effective pieces of advertising. The underlying message or point that the customer should get upon seeing the ad is called the advertising message.

Advertisement message tend to have the following common components-

i. The appeal– It is the component that captures the attention of

the consumer. It may be humorous like Mentos ad, adventurous like in Thumps-Up ads or emotional as in insurance ads etc.

ii. The value preposition– This component includes the basic value preposition offered to the consumer. This forms the main part of the advertising message.

iii. The tagline/ catchphrase– Every good ad campaign has a

tagline, slogan or catchphrase that is repeated across all the different media in order to place firmly the product in the consumer mind.

e) Outdoor media-

Outdoor media is a reminder media that catches the sight of people within a split of second’s time of moving population, without any spending on their part. Here the advertising message is not delivered to the audience like print, broadcasting or Internet media rather the advertising messages are placed in strategic locations where they are exposed to audiences on the move.

Outdoor media can deliver a relevant message to the mass/ targeted audience with ease and efficiency. This advertising medium offers consistency brand awareness. It is able to provide more clarity regarding the focus of the brand.

Outdoor advertising consists of vehicles like Posters, Display, Electric Sign, Sky writing, Sandwichmen and the like. Outdoor advertising also known as out of home advertising, is advertising that reaches consumers when they are outside their home.

f) Development of advertising program—

Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor. Ads can be a cost effective way to disseminate message whether to build a brand preference or to educate people.

Organisation handles advertising in different ways. In small companies, advertising is handled by someone in the sales or marketing who works with an advertising agency. A large company will often set up its own department, whose manager reports to the Vice President of marketing. The department’s job is to propose a budget, develop strategy approve ads and campaign, and handle direct mail advertising dealer displays and other form of advertising.

Most companies use an outside agency to help create advertising campaigns and to select and purchase media. Today advertising agencies are redefining themselves as communication

companies that assist client to improve their overall communication effectiveness by offering strategic and practical advice on many form of communication.

In developing an advertising program, marketing managers must always start by identifying the target market and buyer motives. Then they can make the five major decision known as the five Ms.

3 (a). Develop segmentation strategies and selection of an advertising media for the following marketing institution: (5×2 =10)

(1) Large retail store – In large retail store, the advertising lies between trade and consumer advertising. Retail advertising can be divided into local and national advertising. Local merchants who can a single location in a single market or trade area engage in local retailing advertising, using local media to reach customer living and working near their establishment. Retail companies that have expanded their store operations to multiple markets across the country engage in national retail advertising. These multi store retailer use broad reaching national or international media efficiently communicate with their customer.

The main media used in retail advertising are-

i. Local weekly newspaper including numerous free newspaper

which gain saturation coverage of residential areas by being delivered from door to door

ii. Regional daily newspaper

iii. Public transport external posters and interior cards and area

advertising at sports grounds

iv. Direct mail to regular or account customers and door to door

mail drops distribution

v. Regional commercial T.V.

vi. Independent local radio

vii. Catalogues

(2) Manufacturers of electronic calculator-

(b) ‘’Money spend on advertisement is wasteful’’. Do you agree? Give reasons. 10 Answer: No, I do not agree with this statement that money spend on advertisement is a waste.

Advertising is one of the most common too; of promotion. Promotional techniques like advertising are essential for selling products. It helps to create interest of the consumers in the product. It has a wide reach i.e. it helps to approach a large number of people.

Money spend on advertisement is not a waste becomes clear through the following facts.

(A) Importance to manufacturers – The importance advertising for manufacturers is cleared from the following discussion – of

i. Enhancing customers satisfaction and confidence – Through the medium of advertisement the manufacturers spread information about their product to the customer. Only after having information about the new product people decides to buy them. In this way there is an increase in customer’s confidence and satisfaction.

ii. Helpful to increase the demand of existing products – The

manufacturers regularly give information about their existing products through the medium of advertising. As a result of it,

people get acquainted with those products and their manufacturers and they purchase those products time and again. When the old customer repeatly buy the same product, it also has a positive effect on the new customers. In this way, advertisement help in increasing the demand for the old products.

(B) Importance to society – Main benefits accruing to society on account of advertising are as follows-

i. Helpful to generate more employment– Advertising is

instrumental in generating more employment opportunities and creating diverse kinds of jobs. It provides job to artists, screen printers, block makers, script writer, painter etc. Today advertising has become a profession. Some companies do only advertising job.

ii. Helps to improve the standard of living– Through the

medium of advertising people get information regarding new products. As people use these new and latest goods, their standard of living gets a boost. Advertising is helpful in providing employment and increasing income of the people. Both have a positive effect on their standard of living.

(C) Importance to customers– Main advantages of advertising to the customers are as under-

i. Reduction in prices– Advertising stimulates demand,

production is on large scale and cost of production per unit falls. Due to fall in production cost, price of the commodity is reduced.

4. (a) Define the term advertisement. Explain the different types of advertisement . (2+10=12)

Answer: The messages is known as advertisement. It is nothing more than a message. But advertising is a process, a programme or services of activities necessary to prepare the message and bring it to the intended person or market. Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or services. Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people receive them as defined by the advertising association of the UK.

Advertising is a marketing tactic involving paying for space to promote a product, service or cause. The actual promotion messages are called advertisements or ads for short. The goal of advertising is to reach people most likely to be willing to pay for a company’s products or services and induce them to buy.

The different types of advertisements are-

1. Radio advertisement– It is one of the oldest form of advertising. Advertising on radio is a great way to reach the target audience. When the target audience listens to the radio daily then regular advertisement on radio can attract many new customers.

2. Online advertisement– Online advertisement is a form of advertising which uses the internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. Online advertisements includes e-mail marketing, social media marketing, many type of display advertising ( including web banner advertising) and mobile advertising.

3. Print advertisement- . Print advertisement is a form of advertising that uses physically printed media to reach potential

customers. It is a widely used form of advertisement. These advertisement appears in newspaper or magazines etc.

4. Outdoor advertisement- Any advertising done outdoors that publicizes your business products and services are called outdoor advertising. Billboards and message painted on the side of the buildings are common forms of outdoor advertising which is often used when quick, simple ideas are being promoted.

5. Covert advertisement- Covert advertisement is a unique kind of advertisement in which a product or a particular brand is incorporated in some entertainment and media channels like movies, television shows orr even sports.

6. Television advertisement– A television advertisement is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organisation. Television has an extensive reach and advertising through television is ideal to cater a large market in a large are. Television ads have the advantage of sight, sound, movement to persuade target audience to buy the product.

7. Classified advertising- Classified advertising is a product or service advertising that appears in specific section of newspaper under the heading classifying the product or services been offered.

8. Non product advertisement– This kind of advertisement is advertised from political party trade and social groups for a purposes of safeguard ideologists, social betterment and institution.

(b) Discuss the benefits of advertisement to different groups in the modern economic world. 12

Answer: The benefit of advertisement to different group in the modern economic world are –

1. Helping in generating more employment– Advertising is a complicated task and lot of people are involved in the making of an advertisement. Advertising is instrumented in generating more employment and opportunities and creating diverse kinds of job.

2.Helpful in the economic development of the country– Advertising increases sales, employment and profits. The overall effects of all this is economic progress for the nation as well as the world as a whole. Thus advertising proves helpful in the economic development of the country.

3. Helpful in improving the standard of living- Though the medium of advertising people get information regarding new products. As people use these new and latest products, their standard of living gets a boost. Advertising is helpful in providing employment and increasing income of the people.

4.Information to the customer- Advertisement about new products keeps the customer informed about the new developments in the industry. They help to provide them information regarding the newly launched products and service, their utilities, cost and other requirements and help the customers in making better purchases.

5.Takes care of customers– Advertising takes care of customers. It helps in holding on to the loyal customer, decreasing the number of lost customers and enlisting new customers. Thus the overall effect of advertising will be

increase in the number of customers that will gradually become loyal to the product.

6.Improves the sale of product– Advertising facilitates a noticeable increases in the sale of the products. Advertising also attract huge number of potential customers and make positive impact about their products and services.

7.Religious and moral benefits– Social and religious institutions use advertising for communicating their messages like message of patriotism, faith, compassion, tolerance and charity towards needy, messages related to health and education. These advertisement educates people and guide better behaviour.

8.Promotes brand name of the product– Advertisement creates and promotes brand names for the products. People recognise the products from the catchy ads they see and thus sales are also improved.

9.Alters the attitude of the people– An effective advertisement results in a swift change in the attitude and habit of the people.

10.Feedback from customers– Advertisement can also lead to direct feedback from customers. It has been researched that a lot of opinions and view point are received by the advertisers on their product and services which help them in improving their products and services further

5 (a) Explain the different steps involved in advertising planning and decision making. 12

Answer: The different steps involved in advertising planning and decision making are-

1. Briefing – First the advertiser needs to brief about the product or services which has to be advertised and doing the SWOTT analysis off the company and product.

2. Knowing the objective– One should first know the objective or the purpose of advertising i.e. what message is to be delivered to the audience.

3. Research– This step involves finding out the market behaviour, knowing the competitors, what type of advertising they are using, what is the response of the consumers, availability of the resources needed in the process etc.

4. Target Audience– The next step is to identify the target

consumer most likely to buy the product. The target should be appropriately identified without any confusion. For example- if the product is a health drink for growing kids, then the target customer will be the parents who are going to buy it and not the kids who are going to drink it.

5. Media selection– Now that the target audience is identified,

one should select an appropriate media for advertising so that the customer who are to be informed about the product and are willing to buy are successfully reached.

6. Setting the budget– Then the advertising budget has to be

planned so that there is no short of funds or excess of funds during the process of advertising and also there are no loses to the company.

7. Designing and creating the Ad – First the design that is the outline of ad on paper is made by the copywriters of the agency, then the actual creation ad is done with the help of the art directors and the creative personnel of the agency.

8. Perfection- Then the created ad is re-examined and the ad is

redefined to make it perfect to enter to the market.

9. Place and time of ad – The next step is to decide where and

when the ad will be shown. The place will be decided according to the target customer where the ad is most visible clearly to them. The finalization of time on which the ad will be telecasted or shown on the selected media will be done by the traffic department of the agency.

10. Execution– Finally the advertise is released with perfect

creation, perfect placement and perfect timing in the market.

11. Performance– The last step is to judge the performance of the ad in terms of the response from the customers, whether they are satisfied with the ad and the product, did the ad reached all the targeted people, was the advertise capable enough to complete with the other players etc.

(b) Mention the different types of advertising media and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of any one of them. (2+5+5=12)

Answer: The different types of advertising media are –

a. Direct mail b. Newspaper and magazines c. Radio advertising d. Television advertising e. Film advertising f. Outdoor advertising g. Window display h. Fair and exhibition i. Specially advertising

The advantage of television advertising are-

1. Advertising through television reaches a much larger

audience than local newspaper and radio stations and it does so during a short period of time. 2. It reaches viewer when they are the most attentive. 3. It allows to convey the message with sight, sound and

motion which can give business product or service instant credibility. 4. It gives an opportunity to be creative and attach a

personality to business which can be particularly effective for small business that rely on repeat customers. 5. It gives access to vast audience and can raise awareness

very quickly.

The disadvantage of television advertising are-

1. Advertisers might need to deliver the message to a selected group of audience, which is very narrow. Television causes over exposure of the advertisement thus losing the cost effective. 2. Like the other media, there is a huge clatter of

advertisement on television also because of which it is facing trouble being noticed. 3. It takes longer time compared to the print media to

produce the commercial and sponsored programmes. 4. It is expensive media of advertising compared to the

Press media. 5. The advertisement on T.V. is short lived as the

commercials last for 30 seconds or less which might be very less to create an impact.

6 (a) What is meant by advertisement copy? Explain the different classification of copy in brief. 2+10=12

Answer: An advertisement copy is a term used to describe the main text used in the advertisement. The text could be a dialogue, a catchy punch line or a company’s dictum.

It is a print, radio or T.V. advertising message that aims at developing and retaining an interest of the target customer and promoting him to purchase the product within a couple of seconds.

An ad copy is made of various principles all of which are integrated into a few lines of the copy that the advertise is allowed to engage. It combines search engine optimisation with the marketing strategies and is used in all kinds of advertisements, not only pay per click and contextual ads.

The different classification of copy are-

1. Scientific copy– Scientific copy is of technical nature and it

provides details regarding the producer and the product. This type of copy is generally used by engineer and drug & pharmaceutical firms to inform the ordinary people in general and professional persons in particular about the merits and value of the product so that they may be stimulated to buy it. 2. Descriptive copy– This copy is non-technical in nature and is

prepared in such a manner that a layman can understand it. It gives detailed information about the products in very simple language. This type off advertisement copy is generally used for the products which are purchased as a matter of routine. 3. Topical copy– Topical copy is that advertisement copy which is

intended to appeal the target prospects by establishing a

connection between the products and a particular recent happening. Example- advertising copy of Adidas during sports. 4. Narrative copy– Under this type of copy, appeals are made to

the prospects with the help of a fictitious stories which narrates the benefits of purchasing the products. 5. Personality copy– This type of advertisement copy attempts to

encash the opinion of an important personality about the products. Personality advertisements copies are quite popular now a days on television. For instance- Salman Khan in Revital. 6. Questioning copy– It includes a number of question expected

to be answered by the prospects. The answer of these question lies in the use of the products so advertised. For example- Advertisement of Godrej Locks. 7. Suggestive copy– Suggestive copies are those advertisement

copies which try to suggest the audience directly or indirectly for pursuing them to purchase a particular product. For example- advertisement done through Medifact about Complan 8. Reason why copy– In this type of advertising copy advertised message explains why it is necessary to have the products. It gives definite positive points in favour of a particular product. For example- advertisement copy used in insurance sector like LIC. 9. Fear copy- Those advertising copy which appeal to the sense of

fear of prospects come under this category. These copies arouse deep interest in prospects of protecting their valuables. For example- Advertisement of locks, medical and insurance sector etc. 10. Educational copy– It aims at educating the public,

regarding the use of a product. Such an advertisement copy depicts the specialties of the product, in contrast to the existing ones.

(b) What do you mean by advertising appeal? Give a detailed note on message. 6+6=12

Answer: An advertising appeal is the device by which specific consumer response is solicited in the advertisement. It is the basic use of service or satisfaction which the product can render and which the advertisement is to present. An appeal in an advertisement is an earnest request or a plea to prospect. Every advertiser aims to appeal to the prospects whether he succeeds or not in achieving his goals. In that sense, every piece of advertisement is on appeal telling the story of his with reasons as to why a prospects should prefer his product to those of his competitors.

An advertising message is the visual and/ or auditory information prepared by an advertiser to inform and/ or to persuade an audience regarding a product, organisation or idea. It is sometimes called the creative work by advertising professionals in recognition of the talent and skills required to prepare the most effective pieces of advertising. The underlying message or point that the customer should get upon seeing the ad is called the advertising message.

Advertisement message tend to have the following common components-

i. The appeal– It is the component that captures the attention of the consumer. It may be humorous like Mentos ad, adventurous like in Thumps-Up ads or emotional as in insurance ads etc.

ii. The value preposition– This component includes the basic value preposition offered to the consumer. This forms the main part of the advertising message.

iii. The tagline/ catchphrase– Every good ad campaign has a tagline, slogan or catchphrase that is repeated across all the different media in order to place firmly the product in the consumer mind.

7 (a) Explain the different roles and function of advertising agency. 12

Answer: The different roles and function of advertising agency are- 1. Advertising plan– Advertising agency either prepares or helps

in preparing advertising plans and programmes for its client. Preparing an advertising plan needs concerted efforts and investigative information. 2. Creation and execution– An advertising plan prepared by the advertising agency will be sent to the advertiser for approval. Once approved, its execution is normally assigned to the agency. The agency enters into contracts with the suitable media and the stage is set for creating an effective advertisement to suit the advertising media. 3. Co-ordination– Co-ordination is another important function of

an advertising agency. It has to ensure a proper co-ordination between the clients, sales force and the distribution network to ensure long run success of the advertising programme. 4. Research– Research may enable them to make stronger

presentation to their clients. It may help the copy and art personnel, to create better advertisement for their clients. 5. Mechanical production– The function of this department is to

transform copy, illustrations and layout into a satisfactory printed advertisements. 6. Traffic– In an advertising agency, the term traffic refers to scheduling and control. This department sets up a work schedule and a routine sequence for each advertisement, and

then supervises its progress through various stages in the agency. 7. Accounting– The common assignment of the accounting

department of an agency includes to check the appearance of an advertisements in media, to check media invoices against release orders, to pay media bills, to bills clients and collect from them to look after such matters as records, book keeping and other office routines. 8. Public relation– The fundamental objective of this department

is to build and maintain goodwill with the cross section of public. The tools used in communicating with the public are corporate advertising and publicity. The main job of the department is to build stronger relation with the clients and various section of the public- customers, employees, middlemen and shareholder.

(b) Discuss the function of the Advertising Department of a large manufacturing enterprise. 12 Answer: The function of the Advertising Department of a large manufacturing enterprise are-

1. Contact department– This department is responsible for

getting new accounts and also for maintaining the existing ones. The Account Executive is the key man of department who act as a link between the advertising agency and the clients. 2. Media Department– This department is entrusted with the work of selection of appropriate media for the advertiser. In these circumstances the media department selects the best possible medium. It chooses the appropriate channel of

communication through which message is to reach target consumer. 3. Copy department– The copy director, preferably an art minded individual is the head of the department. The advertising copy is the heart off the advertising programmes as it contains the message. This department co-ordinates the work of copywriting that requires skills, imagination, flair and fluency of language. The department works closely with the account executive and research department. 4. Art and Visualization– The head of thus department is the

Art Director. An Art Director is assisted by the artists, layout men and visualizers. Itt is the duty of this department to get the visuals and layout prepared for press advertisement, posters, calenders and other outdoor advertising. 5. Production department– When the copy is ready the agency

goes ahead with its production headed by a director. Ad agencies generally use outside units for this production services. 6. Finance department– This department is responsible for-

(a) Maintaining accounts, billing and collecting the dues from its clients. (b) Verifying the appearance of advertisement in different media in individual cases.

(c) Checking media invoice against release order. (d) Setting the bills of the media owner. (e) Looking after all the routine matters relating to accounting, recording etc. 7. Research department– This department of the advertising

agency is engaged in the study of the effect of selling activities of the last point of distribution of a product. The research director takes the assistance of analysts, investigators etc.

8. Public relation department– The growth and survival of the advertising agency depends very much upon the public opinion and its support. Favourable public opinion raises morale of the agency personnel and builds goodwill for the company. This department is headed by the public relation executive.



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