2017 – Solved Question Paper | Human Resource Management | Final Year – Masters of Commerce (M.Com) | Dibrugarh University

2017 – Solved Question Paper | Human Resource Management | Final Year – Masters of Commerce (M.Com) | Dibrugarh University

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

COMMERCE

2017

PAPER- 204

1(a) Discuss the difference between HRM and Personnel Management. Why HRM is considered as process of evolution? Explain. (10+6=16)

-> Key Differences between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management:-

The following are the major differences between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management:

1. The part of management that deals with the workforce within the enterprise is known as Personnel Management. The branch of management, which focuses on the best possible use of the enterprise’s manpower, is known as Human Resource Management.

2. Personnel Management treats workers as tools or machines whereas Human Resource Management treats it as an important asset of the organization.

3. Human Resource Management is the advanced version of Personnel Management.

4. Decision Making is slow in Personnel Management, but the same is comparatively fast in Human Resource Management.

5. In Personnel Management there is a piecemeal distribution of initiatives. However, integrated distribution of initiatives is there in Human Resource Management.

6. In Personnel Management, the basis of job design is the division of work while, in the case of Human Resource Management, employees are divided into groups or teams for performing any task.

7. In PM, the negotiations are based on collective bargaining with the union leader. Conversely, in HRM, there is no need for collective bargaining as individual contracts exist with each employee.

8. In PM, the pay is based on job evaluation. Unlike HRM, where the basis of pay is performance evaluation.

9. Personnel management primarily focuses on ordinary activities, such as employee hiring, remunerating, training, and harmony. On the contrary, human resource management focuses on treating employees as valued assets, which are to be valued, used and preserved.

HRM is considered as process of evolution:-

The Industrial Revolution

Managing People at Work began at the time of the Industrial Revolution in the late eighteenth century. Before this time few large organizations existed but with the emergence of new technology, the factory system developed. The work environment was very unfavorable at this time and thousands of employees worked long hours for little pay in difficult and often dangerous working conditions.

Towards the end of the 19th-century Companies like ‘Cadbury’ in the UK and ‘Jacob’ In Ireland voluntarily appointed welfare officers to improve working conditions and set up sick pay schemes and subsidized housing.

The early Twentieth century brought scientific management influenced by FW Taylor who believed there was ‘one best way’ to approach every job and organize the work process more efficiently. Taylor analyzed the job and broke it down into components i.e. job specialization. Taylor believed that people could be trained to become an expert at one particular component of the job but ignored that fact that people are not machines and get bored doing the same job every day. Taylors was most famously adopted by fast food companies and Ford and benefits Human Resource Management with tools such as job analysis, methods of selection, and methods of training.

First World War

Through the First World War, women were recruited in large numbers to fill the gaps left by the men going to fight, which in turn meant reaching an agreement with unions to accept unskilled women into craftsmen’s jobs and changing manning levels. During the 1920s and 1930’s the scope changed to manage absence, recruitment, dismissal and bonus queries.

The research of people like Elton May in the 1930s and ’40s indicated that performance could be affected by motivation, job satisfaction, group dynamics and leadership style. This behavioral science began to influence the management of people as we understood that a more flexible approach was required when dealing with different people. After the war, when the economy began picking up, large organizations saw value in improving employee benefits as a way of recruiting, retaining and motivating employees.

Second World War

The Second World War brought about welfare and personnel work on a full-time basis that largely involved implementing the rules demanded by large scale, state governed production and thus the image of the emerging profession was a bureaucratic one. Following the development of poor industrial relations in the 1960s, employers, unions and personnel managers were criticized for lacking negotiation skills and failing to plan industrial relations or people development strategies.

In the 1960s and 70s employment started to develop significantly. At the same time personnel techniques developed using theories from the social sciences about motivation and organizational behavior; selection testing became more widely used, and management training expanded. During the 1970s, specialism’s started to develop, with reward and resourcing, for example, being addressed as separate issues.

During the 1980s and 1990s, a time of worldwide recession, many business leaders recognized that their employees were the key to competitive advantage. This belief, that people are a resource to be managed as efficiently and effectively as any other resource, led to a shift in management style which became known as Human Resource Management.

(b) Discuss the role of Human Resource Management in the management of large service enterprises. (16)

-> HRM ensures the smooth functioning of an organization. The process starts with formulating the right policies for the job requirements and ends with ensuring a successful business growth of the company. Therefore, HRM is an invisible agent that binds all the aspects of the organization to ensure smooth progress.

In this modern era, organizations have become more people-centric than ever — especially since this approach pays great dividends in terms of enhanced employee performance and lower attrition rates. Human Resource Management or HRM plays a key role in allowing employers and organizations to reach their objective.

The functions of HRM hold great significance in the growth and overall development of the organizations. After all, when the employees grow and develop their skills, the organization will automatically experience growth and expansion. Some of the primary functions of HRM include job design and job analysis, recruitment/ hiring and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits, performance management, managerial relations and labor relations.

Role of HRM:-

1. Job design and job analysis

One of the foremost functions of HRM is job design and job analysis. Job design involves the process of describing duties, responsibilities and operations of the job. To hire the right employees based on rationality and research, it is imperative to identify the traits of an ideal candidate who would be suitable for the job. This can be accomplished by describing the skills and character traits of your top-performing employee. Doing so will help you determine the kind of candidate you want for the job. You will be able to identify your key minimum requirements in the candidate to qualify for the job.

Job analysis involves describing the job requirements, such as skills, qualification and work experience. The vital day-to-day functions need to be identified and described in detail, as they will decide the future course of action while recruiting.

2. Employee hiring and selection

Recruitment is one of the primary functions of human resource management. HRM aims to obtain and retain qualified and efficient employees to achieve the goals and objectives of the company. All this starts with hiring the right employees out of the list of applicants and favorable candidates.

An HRM helps to source and identify the ideal candidates for interview and selection. The candidates are then subjected to a comprehensive screening process to filter out the most suitable candidates from the pool of applicants. The screened candidates are then taken through different interview rounds to test and analyze their skills, knowledge and work experience required for the job position.

Once the primary functions of HRM in recruitment are completed, and the candidate gets selected after rounds of interviews, they are then provided with the job offer in the respective job positions. This process is important because these selected employees will, after all, help the company realize its goals and objectives.

3. Employee training & development

Imparting proper training and ensuring the right development of the selected candidates is a crucial function of HR. After all, the success of the organization depends on how well the employees are trained for the job and what are their growth and development opportunities within the organization.

The role of HR should be to ensure that the new employees acquire the company-specific knowledge and skills to perform their task efficiently. It boosts the overall efficiency and productivity of the workforce, which ultimately results in better business for the company.

HRM plays a very crucial role in preparing employees for bigger tasks and responsibilities, which leads to the holistic development of employees at work. And an organization which provides ample growth and development opportunities to its employees is considered to be a healthy organization.

4. Compensation and Benefits

Benefits and compensation form the major crux of the total cost expenditure of an organization. It is a must to plug the expenses, and at the same time, it is also necessary to pay the employees well. Therefore, the role of human resource management is to formulate attractive yet efficient benefits and compensation packages to attract more employees into the workplace without disturbing the finances of the company.

The primary objective of the benefits and compensation is to establish equitable and fair remuneration for everyone. Plus, HR can use benefits and compensation as a leverage to boost employee productivity as well as establish a good public image of the business.

Therefore, one of the core HR department functions is to lay down clear policies and guidelines about employee compensation and their available benefits. One of the functions of HR manager is to ensure the effective implementation of these policies and guidelines. This creates equality and builds transparency among the employees and the management within the organization. After all, the level of employee satisfaction at work is directly proportional to the compensation and benefits they receive.

5. Employee performance management

The next activity on HR functions list is effective employee performance management. Effective performance management ensures that the output of the employees meets the goals and objective of the organization. Performance management doesn’t just focus on the performance of the employee. It also focuses on the performance of the team, the department, and the organisation as a whole.

The list of HR functions for performance management includes:

· Initiating an appropriate selection process to hire the right candidates for the job positions

· Providing the right training and education needed to enhance the performance of the employees

· Enabling real-time feedback and coaching employees to boost efficiency among them

· Conducting performance reviews monthly or quarterly to discuss the positives and the improvement areas of employees

· Formulating a proper exit interview process to understand why experienced employees choose to leave the company

· Designing a proper appraisal and compensation system that recognizes and rewards the workforce for their effort and hard work

6. Managerial relations

Relationships in employment are normally divided into two parts — managerial relations and labor relations. While labor relations are mainly about the relationship between the workforce and the company, managerial relations deals with the relationship between the various processes in an organization.

Managerial relations determine the amount of work that needs to be done in a given day and how to mobilize the workforce to accomplish the objective. It is about giving the appropriate project to the right group of employees to ensure efficient completion of the project. At the same time, it also entails managing the work schedules of employees to ensure continued productivity. It is essential that HR handles such relations effectively to maintain the efficiency and productivity of the company.

7. Labor relations

Cordial labor relations are essential to maintain harmonious relationships between employees at the workplace. At the workplace, many employees work together towards a single objective. However, individually, everyone is different from the other in characteristics. Hence, it is natural to observe a communication gap between two employees. If left unattended, such behaviors can spoil labor relations in the company.

Therefore, it is crucial for an HR to provide proper rules, regulations and policies about labor relations. This way, the employees have a proper framework within which they need to operate. Therefore, every employee will be aware of the policies which will create a cordial and harmonious work environment.

Such a structured and calm work atmosphere also helps with improving performance and aching higher targets.

8. Employee engagement and communication

Employee engagement is a crucial part of every organization. Higher levels of engagement guarantee better productivity and greater employee satisfaction. Efficiently managing employee engagement activities will help in improving the employee retention rates too. HRM is the right agent who can manage the employee engagement seamlessly. Proper communication and engagement will do wonders for the employees as well as the organization. The more engaged the employees are, more committed and motivated they will be.

Human resource teams know the ‘humans’ of the organization better than anyone else. This gives them an upper hand in planning engagement activities. Although such activities might not fall under the direct functions of HRM, they are indeed required for the organizational welfare and employer branding.

9. Health and safety regulations

Every employer should mandatorily follow the health and safety regulations laid out by the authorities. Our labor laws insist every employer to provide whatever training, supplies, PPE, and essential information to ensure the safety and health of the employees. Integrating the health and safety regulations with company procedures or culture is the right way to ensure the safety of the employees. Making these safety regulations part of the company activities is one of the important functions of HRM.

10. Personal support for employees

HRM assists employees when they run into personal problems which may interfere with the workflow. Along with discharging administrative responsibilities, HR departments also help employees in need. Since the pandemic, the need for employee support and assistance has substantially increased. For example, many employees needed extra time off and medical assistance during the peak period of the pandemic. For those who reached out for help, whether it may be in the form of insurance assistance or extra leaves, companies provided help through HR teams.

11. Succession Planning

Succession planning is a core function of HRMs. It aims at planning, monitoring, and managing the growth path of the employees from within the organizations.

What usually happens is that promising and bright employees within the organization who have excelled in their roles are handpicked by their supervisors and HRs, and their growth paths are developed.

This, of course, becomes quintessential as those employees who recognize the fact that the company is investing in their growth and development, and therefore, will stay loyal in the long run. However, while developing such employees towards a higher role, companies must keep in mind several aspects, such as improving employee engagement, assigning challenging tasks and activities.

An employee leaving the organization can prove to be disruptive and expensive. Therefore, succession planning is a savior of some sorts, as it helps identify the next person who is just right to replace the outgoing individual.

12. Industrial Relations

It’s usually the production lines and manufacturing units where this HR function is mostly used. Unions exist in factories and manufacturing units. And their responsibility is towards the goodwill about the workers — in fact, they’re always vocal and upfront about.

Now, for a company, especially into manufacturing and production, the HRs must have ongoing Industrial Relations practices. They must also continuously engage with the Unions in a friendly and positive manner to maintain amicable relations.

The true motive of Industrial Relation touches on a lot of issues within the company. For instance, Industrial Relations may be in place to meet wage standards, reduce instances that call for strikes and protests, improve working and safety conditions for employees, and reduce resource wastage and production time and so on.

Industrial Relations are extremely important because, if handled properly, it can circumvent protests, violence, walkouts, lawsuits, loss of funds and production time. IR is a sensitive yet critical function of the HR department; naturally, it requires personnel with vast experience.

HRM plays a major role in the smooth functioning of the organization. The process starts with formulating the right policies for the job requirements and ends with ensuring a successful business growth of the company. Therefore, HRM works as an invisible agent that binds together all the aspects of the organization to ensure smooth progress.

2(a) Discuss the process of selection with a suitable model. (16)

-> The Selection is a process of picking the right candidate with prerequisite qualifications and capabilities to fill the jobs in the organization.

The selection process is quite lengthy and complex as it involves a series of steps before making the final selection. The procedure of selection may vary from industry to industry, company to company and even from department to department. Every organization designs its selection process, keeping in mind the urgency of hiring people and the prerequisites for the job vacancy.

The purpose of the selection process is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job in an organization best, to find out which job applicant will be successful if hired.

If you want to manage your recruitment well, you’ll need to set your aims, adjust your methods to meet this aim, and regularly review how it’s working.

A good selection process should possess the following features:

· A selection process is an employment of workers through which a contractual relationship between employees and employer is established.

· The selection process should avoid complex procedures and processes that will confuse and alienate potential participants.

· The selection process involves rejecting a large number of under-qualified candidates; hence, it is regarded as a negative process.

· Selection process eliminates unsuitable and misfit candidates and ensures that the most competent and qualified candidates will enter into the organization.

· A selection process is a complex process as all have to pass numbers of selection hurdles.

· Monitor your selection systems on-going for process enhancements, examining pass rates, efficiency, accuracy, and fairness.

Therefore, selection can be defined as a process by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most qualified candidate in order to perform organizational activities.

Advantages:

(i) Proper Assessment:

Tests provide a basis for finding out the suitability of candidates for various jobs.

The mental capability, aptitude, liking and interests of the candidates enable the selectors to find out whether a person is suitable for the job for which he is a candidate.

(ii) Objective Assessment:

Tests provide better objective criteria than any other method. Subjectivity of every type is almost eliminated.

(iii) Uniform Basis:

Tests provide a uniform basis for comparing the performance of applicants. Same tests are given to the candidates and their score will enable selectors to see their performance.

(iv) Selection of Better Persons:

The aptitude, temperament and adjustability of candidates are determined with the help of tests. This enables their placement on the jobs where they will be most suitable. It will also improve their efficiency and job satisfaction.

(v) Labor Turnover Reduced:

Proper selection of persons will also reduce labour turnover. If suitable persons are not selected, they may leave their job sooner or later. Tests are helpful in finding out the suitability of persons for the jobs. Interest tests will help in knowing the liking of applicants for different jobs. When a person gets a job according to his temperament and interest he would not leave it.

Disadvantages:

The Tests Suffer From The Following Disadvantages:

(i) Unreliable:

The inferences drawn from the tests may not be correct in certain cases. The skill and ability of a candidate may not be properly judged with the help of tests.

(ii) Wrong Use:

The tests may not be properly used by the employees. Those persons who are conducting these tests may be biased towards certain persons. This will falsify the results of tests. Tests may also give unreliable results if used by incompetent persons.

(iii) Fear of Exposure:

Some persons may not submit to the tests for fear of exposure. They may be competent but may not like to be assessed through the tests. The enterprise may be deprived of the services of such personnel who are not willing to appear for the tests but are otherwise suitable for the concern.

Selection Process

The selection procedure comprises of following systematic steps:

1. Preliminary Interview: The preliminary interview is also called as a screening interview wherein those candidates are eliminated from the further selection process who does not meet the minimum eligibility criteria as required by the organization.

Here, the individuals are checked for their academic qualifications, skill sets, family backgrounds and their interest in working with the firm. The preliminary interview is less formal and is basically done to weed out the unsuitable candidates very much before proceeding with a full-fledged selection process.

2. Receiving Applications: Once the individual qualifies the preliminary interview he is required to fill in the application form in the prescribed format. This application contains the candidate data such as age, qualification, experience, etc. This information helps the interviewer to get the fair idea about the candidate and formulate questions to get more information about him.

3. Screening Applications: Once the applications are received, these are screened by the screening committee, who then prepare a list of those applicants whom they find suitable for the interviews. The shortlisting criteria could be the age, sex, qualification, experience of an individual. Once the list is prepared, the qualified candidates are called for the interview either through a registered mail or e-mails.

4. Employment Tests: In order to check the mental ability and skill set of an individual, several tests are conducted. Such as intelligence tests, aptitude tests, interest tests, psychological tests, personality tests, etc. These tests are conducted to judge the suitability of the candidate for the job.

5. Employment Interview: The one on one session with the candidate is conducted to gain more insights about him. Here, the interviewer asks questions from the applicant to discover more about him and to give him the accurate picture of the kind of a job he is required to perform.

Also, the briefing of certain organizational policies is done, which is crucial in the performance of the job. Through an interview, it is easier for the employer to understand the candidate’s expectations from the job and also his communication skills along with the confidence level can be checked at this stage.

6. Checking References: The firms usually ask for the references from the candidate to cross check the authenticity of the information provided by him. These references could be from the education institute from where the candidate has completed his studies or from his previous employment where he was formerly engaged. These references are checked to know the conduct and behavior of an individual and also his potential of learning new jobs.

7. Medical Examination: Here the physical and mental fitness of the candidate are checked to ensure that he is capable of performing the job. In some organizations, the medical examination is done at the very beginning of the selection process while in some cases it is done after the final selection.

Thus, this stage is not rigid and can take place anywhere in the process. The medical examination is an important step in the selection process as it helps in ascertaining the applicant’s physical ability to fulfill the job requirements.

8. Final Selection: Finally, the candidate who qualifies all the rounds of a selection process is given the appointment letter to join the firm.

Thus, the selection is complex and a lengthy process as it involves several stages than an individual has to qualify before getting finally selected for the job.

3(a) Discuss the merits and demerits of different types of wage payments. (16)

-> This is the oldest method of wage payment. “Time” is made a basis for determining wages of worker. Under this system, the wages are paid according to the time spent by workers irrespective of his output of work done. The wage rates are fixed for an hour, a day, and week, a month or even a year.

The supervisor may ensure that workers do not waste their time and the quality of goods is also maintained. There are no hard and fast rules for fixing rates of wages. These may be decided according to the level of the past higher positions may be paid higher rates and vice- versa.

Wages are calculated in the method as follows:

Earnings = T x R where T stands for time spent and R is rate of pay.

Suitability:

Time wage system is suitable under following situations:

(1) When productivity of an employee cannot be measured precisely.

(2) Where quality of products is more important than the quantity produced.

(3) Where individual employees do not have any control over production.

(4) Where close supervision of work is possible.

(5) Where work delays are frequent and beyond the control of workers.

Advantages:

1. Simplicity:

The method of wage payments is very simple. The workers will not find any difficulty in calculating the wages. The time spent by a person multiplied by the rate will determine his wages.

2. Security:

Workers are guaranteed minimum wages for the time spent by them. There is no link between wages and output; wages are paid irrespective of output. They are not supposed to complete particular task for getting their wages. They are sure to set certain wages at the end of a specified period of time spent in working.

3. Batter Quality of Products:

When workers are assured of wages on time basis, they will improve the quality of products. If wages are related to output, then workers may think of increasing production without bothering about quality of goods.

In this method, workers will concentrate on producing better quality of goods. In certain situations, only time wage system will be suitable. If some artistic nature products are produced, then this method will be most suitable.

4. Support of Unions:

This method is acceptable to trade unions because it does not distinguish between workers on the basis of their performance. Any method which gives different wage rates or wages based on output is generally opposed by trade unions.

5. Beneficial for Beginners:

Wage rate system is good for the beginners because they may not be able to reach particular level of production on entering employment.

6. Less, Wastages:

The workers will not be in a hurry to push through production. The materials and equipment’s will be properly handled leading to less wastage.

Limitations:

Time wage system suffers from the following drawbacks:

1. No Incentive for efficiency:

This method does not distinguish between efficient and inefficient workers. The payment of wages is related to time and not output. Thus, the method gives no incentive for more production.

Efficient workers may start to follow inefficient persons because rates of pay are same. Rates of wages fixed in this method are also low because these are fixed by taken into account the output of dullest workers. Thus, this method does not provide incentive for efficiency.

2. Wastage of time:

Workers may waste their time because they will not be following a target of production. Efficient workers may also follow slow workers because there is no distinction between them. This may lead to wastage of time.

3. Low production:

Since wages are not related to output, production rate shall be low. The responsibility for increasing production may mostly lie on supervisors. Because of low production, overhead expenses per unit will go up, leading to higher production cost.

4. Difficulty to determine labor cost:

Because wages are not related to output, employees find it difficult to calculate labor cost per unit. The output will go on varying from time to time while wages will remain almost same. Production planning and control will be difficult in the absence of a relationship between wages and output wages and output.

5. Difficult supervision work:

Under this system, workers are not offered incentives for production. To get more workers from them, there will be need for greater supervision. More supervision may be required to maintain proper quality of goods also. In wage system supervision cost goes up to a great extent.

6. Employer-employee trouble:

When all employees, irrespective of their merit are treated equally, there is likely to be a trouble between management and workers. Those employees, who are not satisfied with this method, may start disobeying order from their superiors.

4(a) Discuss a suitable managerial technique that you would like to design to increase the motivation level of a set of heterogeneous group of employees. (16)

-> Managerial Techniques to motivate the employees:-

1. Foster Open Communication

Having open communication with your staff is crucial to maintaining employee motivation. No one wants to work under a boss he feels uncomfortable approaching. Applying methods of establishing effective communication with your team will do wonders for your staff’s motivation.

Show them you care

A staff member that is invested in her work will naturally have questions, comments, or concerns. Having an open door policy and creating consistently accessible lines of communication will help your staff to feel as though their input matters (which it should!). If having an open door policy is unrealistic for you, it can be just as impactful to dedicate some time during staff meetings for people to voice or write down their concerns for a group discussion.

Always follow up

Following up with your employees regarding their input is equally important as asking them for it. While you may not be able to answer every question, or fix every problem, following up at least demonstrates to employees that you took the time to consider their remarks, rather than ignoring them or sending them on to someone else. Your staff will know that you’re listening to them, and won’t be afraid to come to you again in the future.

2. Create an Agile Work Environment

Another extremely powerful way to uphold employee motivation and engagement is by creating an agile work environment. An “agile work environment” refers to fast-paced project management techniques that place value on constant change and adjustment over adhering to a rigid structure. While this technique is typically used in software development, the principles behind it are demonstrably effective in any industry.

Pick up the pace

In psychology, there is a concept known as the “Pleasure Principle,” which predisposes us as human beings to desire instant gratification over long term rewards. In agile work environments, managers can exploit this facet of human nature by having employees work on projects with the goal of delivering results as quickly and efficiently as possible. A fast paced environment is exciting and inspiring, and employees will naturally be much more engaged in a project that will fulfill this psychological desire for gratification sooner rather than later.

Encourage innovation

Within an agile work environment, producing both high quantity and high quality work requires a ton of creative thinking. It is important to motivate your staff to take risks and be innovative, even if it means they will make a mistake now and then. One of the virtues of an agile work environment is that when your employees aren’t afraid to fail, they will become more daring, making them more apt to generate work that could potentially set your organization apart from the competition.

3. Be Someone You’d Want to Work For

Whether it’s unrealistic expectations, constant crabbiness, or unapproachability, almost all of us have had that one manager who made work a living nightmare. Even if you love what you do, having a miserable manager can spoil a dream job in record timing. This is why being someone who you’d want to work for is integral to keeping your staff motivated.

Stay positive

It’s been said that smiles are contagious, so if you remain positive and enthused to be at work each day, your staff will follow your lead. People do not want to please someone who is seemingly unpleasable, so being passionate about the work that is being done in your organization is crucial. When you are happy to be at work, your staff will be happy to work for you, and will be motivated to keep the good vibes coming.

Be understanding

Despite our best efforts, we all occasionally fall short of expectations. As a manager, being understanding of the fact that your employees are human beings — not programmable robots — is necessary to keeping them motivated. An employee that is afraid to admit to her manager when she makes a mistake is not going to be comfortable in her position. On the other hand, if that same employee knows that her manager will be sympathetic to the situation, she will be happy to get her work done, knowing that someone is there to support her whenever she needs it.

Get to know your team

Having a one-on-one relationship with your staff members will make you more personable in their eyes, and will help you better understand your team to find what it is that motivates each person individually. Having individual relationships with staff members will also help dissolve the barrier in their minds that separates you from them. When your staff members feel they have a personal connection with you, they will be motivated to not let you down. A study by Stefan Stürmer of the University of Kiel shows that people are more likely to help out those they perceive to be “ like them ,” so making an effort to show you are as much a part of the team as the folks you manage will have a profound psychological effect on how they view the work they are doing for you.

4. Incentivize the Workplace

Providing incentives or rewards for completion of certain goals is a great way to get your staff to go above and beyond with their work. Making their jobs both gratifying and fun is sure to boost employee motivation.

Make work fun

Many employers have implemented a strategy called “gamification,” which involves applying game-like concepts to ordinary work tasks in order to generate enthusiasm and create friendly competition in the workplace. Google implemented a great example of this strategy through what is called the “Google Code Jam,” where the company organizes a coding competition in order to fish out potential hires.

While not every organization can (or needs to) gamify something like their hiring process, things as simple as a game of bingo for sales representatives to motivate them to sell bigger ticket items will make work feel more like play. You will be surprised at how competitive your staff will become over a reward as simple as a $10 gift card or an afternoon off (and, of course, bragging rights).

Reward people for hard work

Rewarding your employees for hard work is decisive in how motivated they will be. Recognizing them for their achievements can be cost effective, too — you don’t have to use monetary rewards or even spend money on a prize. Deloitte turned to a software that helps incentivize workplace tasks by providing employees the opportunity to appear on leadership boards or earn badges in exchange for completing a task. Providing your staff with ongoing opportunities to be recognized for their onerous efforts will keep them motivated over longer periods of time.

5. Encourage Workplace Camaraderie

The average full time adult employee spends 40 hours a week in the same office, with the same people. As a manager, making sure your employees are happy with the people they work with is extremely important to keeping them motivated and on task.

Focus on team bonding

You can foster positive employee relationships through team bonding exercises, whether it be starting off each day with a staff meeting or planning a bowling night once a month. Focusing on making sure your employees are friendly with each other makes them better at communicating, and thus, better at resolving issues without your assistance.

Manage employee conflicts personally

Conflict in the workplace is not always preventable. If an issue should arise between members of your staff, you want to be available to your employees so they can bring it to your attention promptly. Being unbiased and fair when dealing with two employees will help you resolve the issue quickly, and will help your staff redirect their focus away from the drama and back to what’s important.

6. Invest in Your Employees’ Happiness

Happier people are more productive , according to the Social Market Foundation and the University of Warwick’s Centre for Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy. Making sure your employees feel good about coming to work will motivate them to work harder.

Respect their work-life balance

Overworked employees will not be motivated to produce quality results. Hence, respecting that your employees have a life outside of work is vital to boosting their motivation. Your staff members will be much happier if they feel comfortable asking for a day off to focus on self-care, or if they know you will understand if they have a family emergency (something that also relies on having a positive individual relationship with each staff member).

Show appreciation

As a manager, it may seem arbitrary to express gratitude every single time an employee does his job correctly. In fact, it isn’t just arbitrary — it’s unreasonable! However, taking the time to recognize even minor achievements by members of your team can do wonders for their motivation. It is easy to overlook the day to day tasks that keep your organization moving, and in turn, easy to overlook the people that work tirelessly to complete these tasks.

People love to feel appreciated, so occasionally taking the time to send a personalized “thank you” someone’s way can make all the difference. In the words of Wal Mart founder Sam Walton, “Appreciate everything your associates do. Nothing else can quite substitute for a few well-chosen, well-timed, sincere words of praise. They’re absolutely free and worth a fortune.”

Employee motivation is an indispensable aspect to success and productivity — something that no amount of coffee can make up for. Following these guidelines will help you cultivate motivation and enthusiasm in the workplace.

(b) Critically argue the role of personality in an effective communication. (16)

-> Personality refers to an individual’s characteristics, style, behavior, mindset, attitude, his own unique way of perceiving things and seeing the world. Genetic factors, family backgrounds, varied cultures, environment, current situations play an imperative role in shaping one’s personality. The way you behave with others reflects your personality. An individual with a pleasing personality is appreciated and respected by all.

Effective Communication skills play a crucial role in honing one’s personality. Communication helps individuals to express themselves in the most convincing way . Your thoughts, feelings and knowledge should be passed on in the most desirable manner and effective communication skills help you in the same.

A person should speak really well to make a mark of his/her own. Remember, no one would take you seriously if you do not master the art of expressing yourself clearly and in the most convincing manner.

Not all people are blessed with excellent communication skills; they acquire the same with time and practice. People with great communication skills tend to have a better and impressive personality than those who have problems in communicating as interacting with others is not a challenge for them. Individuals with effective communication skills can easily converse with other people around be it their fellow workers, peers, family and so on.

Effective communication skills strengthen the bond among individuals . It is also said to improve the interpersonal relationships with other people.

Careful selection of words is essential for effective communication skills. You really need to know what you are speaking. You never know what might hurt the other person. Never even think of being rude to anyone.

Speak convincingly so that the other person understands what you intend to communicate . Your style of speaking has a tremendous impact on your personality. Speaking slowly always helps as it allows you to find appropriate words and also reflects thoughtfulness. Emphasize important and relevant words for the other person to realize the importance.

Speaking confidently is the key to an impressive and great personality. Do not show signs of nervousness while interacting with others. There is no point of being nervous unless and until you yourself are not sure of what you are speaking. Develop proper eye contact with the other person. Do not look around while interacting with the other person.

Take care of your body language . Correct body language exudes confidence which further hones an individual’s personality. Do not fiddle with things around while speaking.

Be very particular about the pronunciation of words . If you are not very sure of how to pronounce a particular word, avoid the same in your speech. Pronouncing words wrongly creates a bad impression on others.

You really do not need to speak with a fake accent to prove that you have excellent communication skills. Avoid copying others. An individual should have his/her own style to stand apart from the rest. Speaking articulately enhances one’s personality and makes him/her different from others.

Do not play with words. Never try to fool anyone as you might fall in the trap later on. One should always say things straight to the point.

It is important to be a good and patient listener for effective communication skills . Observe whether the other person is listening to you or not. Allow the other person to speak as well in case of queries or confusions.

5. Write short notes on: (any two) (2*8=16)

(a) HR audit versus Audit of Financial resources.

(b) Personnel records and statistics.

-> Personnel Records are records pertaining to employees of an organization. These records are accumulated, factual and comprehensive information related to concern records and detained. All information with effect to human resources in the organization is kept in a systematic order. Such records are helpful to a manager in various decisions -making areas.

Personnel records are maintained for formulating and reviewing personnel policies and procedures. Complete details about all employees are maintained in personnel records, such as, name, date of birth, marital status, academic qualifications, professional qualifications, previous employment details, etc.

Types of Personnel Records

1. Records of employment contain applicants past records, list sources, employee’s progress, medical reports, etc.

2. Wages and salaries records contain pay roll records, methods of wages and salaries, leave records, turnover records and other benefit records.

3. Training and development contains appraisal reports, transfer cases, training schedule, training methods.

4. Health and safety records include sickness reports, safety provisions, medical history, insurance reports, etc.

5. Service Records are the essential records containing bio-data, residential and family information, academic qualifications, marital status, past address and employment records.

Purposes of Personnel Records

According to the critics of personnel records, this system is called as a wastage of time and money. According to personnel records, followers of this : Dale Yoder, an economist of Michigan University, USA has justified the significance of personnel records after making an in-depth study.

1. It helps to supply crucial information to managers regarding the employees.

2. To keep an update record of leaves, lockouts, transfers, turnover, etc. of the employees.

3. It helps the managers in framing various training and development programmes on the basis of present scenario.

4. It helps the government organizations to gather data in respect to rate of turnover, rate of absenteeism and other personnel matters.

5. It helps the managers to make salary revisions, allowances and other benefits related to salaries.

6. It also helps the researchers to carry in- depth study with respect to industrial relations and goodwill of the firm in the market.

Therefore, personnel records are really vital for an organization and are not a wasteful exercise.

(c) Personnel policies and programmes.

-> A personnel policy is a plan of action, a set of proposals and actions that act as a reference point for managers in their dealings with employees. Personnel policies constitute guides to action. They furnish the general standards or bases on which decisions are reached. Their genesis lies in an organization’s values, philosophy, concepts and principles”. Personnel guide the course of action intended to accomplish personnel objectives. A policy is a guideline for making wise decisions. It brings about stability in making decisions. A policy is a stance, often a choice made between two or more alternatives, such as the choice between promoting employees on that basis of merit versus promoting them on the basis of seniority.

Characteristics:-

1. It should be in written form.

2. It should be clear, positive and early understood by each and every employee of the organization.

3. It should be in the line of corporate objectives.

4. It should be in local language also.

5. It should be generally known to all interested parties.

6. It should be reasonably stable but not rigid.

7. It should be built on the basis of facts and sound judgment.

8. It should provide two way communication systems between the management and the employees of the organization.

9. It should be fair and equitable to internal as well as external groups.

10. It should be consistent with public policy.

11. It should support management as well as establish cooperation of employees at the shop floor level and in the office.

The principal aims and objectives of personnel policies may be listed thus:

(i) To enable an organization to fulfill or carry out the main objectives which have been laid down as the desirable minima of general employment policy;

(ii) To ensure that its employees are informed of these items of policy and to secure their co­operation for their attainment;

(iii) To provide such conditions of employment and procedures as will enable all the employees to develop a sincere sense of unity with the enterprise and to carry out their duties in the most willing and effective manner;

(iv) To provide an adequate, competent and trained personnel for all levels and types of management; and motivate them;

(v) To protect the common interests of all the parties and recognize the role of trade unions in the organizations;

(vi) To provide for a consultative participation by employees in the management of an organization and the framing of conditions for this participation, this, however, shall not take place in technical, financial or trading policy;

(vii) To provide an efficient consultative service – this aims at creating mutual faith among those who work in the enterprise-

(a) By developing management leadership which is bold and imaginative and guided by moral values;

(b) By effectively delegating the human relations aspects of personnel functions to line managers;

(c) By enforcing discipline on the basis of co-operative understanding and a humane application of rules and regulations; and

(d) By providing for a happy relationship at all levels;

(viii) To establish the conditions for mutual confidence and avoid confusion and misunderstanding between the management and the workers, by developing suggestion plans, joint management councils, work committees, etc., and by performance appraisal discussions;

(ix) To provide security of employment to workers so that they may not be distracted by the uncertainties of their future;

(x) To provide an opportunity for growth within the organization to persons who are willing to learn and undergo training to improve their future prospects;

(xi) To provide for the payment of fair and adequate wages and salary to workers so that their healthy co-operation may be ensured for an efficient working of the undertaking;

(xii) To recognize the work and accomplishments of the employees, by offering non-monetary incentives rewards;

(xiii) To create a sense of responsibility, on the part of those in authority, for the claims of employees as human beings, who should be guaranteed protection of their fundamental rights and offered enough scope for developing their potential.

In brief, personnel policies should respect human dignity and personal integrity, ensure fair treatment for all, irrespective of caste, creed, or color, and offer reasonable social and economic security to employees.

They should be so designed as to ensure that work and accomplishment are properly recognized, that safety and health conditions of work are created, that common interests are promoted and employee participation is encouraged, that the role of trade unions is recognized and their functions and responsibilities are respected, and that the employees’ satisfaction and motivation and their development as individuals are properly looked after.

(d) Need for Personnel research.

-> Personnel research seems to be one of the most important topics under discussion about Human Resource Management. There are some different definitions of the personnel research.

A personnel manager not only conducts researchers for his own division but is often asked to undertake studies for other division. Personnel research serves the following functions-

1. Building existing knowledge:

Personnel research is a newer idea. So a huge number of topics are still unexplored. Unrecognized labor and its problem, female employment, group work performance and changing nature of supervisor are some areas which can be explored by the personnel research.

2. Appraisal of proposed programs:

Before a change is introduced it should be ensured that it will be effective. An organization may be interested in replacing obsolete machine, staggering holydays and lunch break or changing its appraisal method. Personnel research can help in predicting the employee’s responses to these changes.

3. Evaluation of current and new policies:

Once a change is introduced the changed agent must continuously evaluate its outcomes. Opinion and attitude, survey and analysis of output and performances can provide signals to management about the efficiency of its policies and practices. Personnel research also can help in this field.

4. Anticipation of personnel problems:

The successful opening of an organization does not refer that it will remain so in future. A personnel manager is one who not only manages problem but can foresee problem and corrective measure. So this is an important function of personnel research.

The various purposes of personnel research can be listed as follows:

1. To build upon existing knowledge about the personnel matters in the organization.

2. To evaluate the present conditions in human resource management.

3. To appraise proposed personnel programmes and activities in the organization.

4. To predict future problems.

5. To evaluate current policies, programmes and practices.

6. To offer an objective and justified basis for modification and revision of current policies, programmes and practices.

7. To keep management abreast of its competitors and replace obsolete techniques by new ones.

8. Discover ways and means how to keep employees at a high level of morale on continuous basis.

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